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THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE: USING COMMAS 2

The most important rules about using commas:
Rules Examples
The comma is used to mark off words in apposition: Mr Brown, our new teacher, has a red car.
Commas are used to mark off the nominative of address: John, what are you doing?
...to mark off absolute phrases: The day being fine, we went for a picnic.
The shops having closed, we went home.
...to mark off adverbs and adverbial phrases that are used absolutely: John, however, could not come.
In conclusion, I feel that much more can be done.
...to mark off adverbial clauses that precede the words they modify: Whenever I have enough time, I clean my car.
...to separate similar parts of speech: My brother seems to be always reading long, dull, complicated books.
...to mark off parenthetical clauses that interrupt the thought of a sentence: There was no cause, the report stated, for anyone to be unemployed.
...to mark off non-defining adjectival clauses: I lost my copy of "To Kill a Mockingbird", which my father bought for me last week.
...to mark off phrases that precede the words they qualify or modify: Returning home after the pictures, I met two of my friends.
...to separate complete principal clauses, unless the clauses are very short or have the same subject: I shall go in Tom's car, and you will go in Peter's.
Tom stood up and walked out of the room.
I sang and Peter played the piano.
...to separate short principal clauses that are not joined by conjunctions: I came, I saw, I conquered.
He entered the room, looked round at everyone, noticed me, and walked towards me.
...to indicate parenthesis: The author of this book believes, and I agree with him, that most people today do not derive enough satisfaction from their work.
...to mark off clauses that break into direct speech: "Our country," he said, "has unlimited resources."
...before which introducing a principal clause He trains for two hours every day, which means that he rarely has time to go out.

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