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THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE: GRAMMAR: ADJECTIVE - ADVERB

1. An adjective modifies a noun, as in 'The tall tree' or 'The tree is tall'.
2. An adverb can modify four parts of speech:

a. a verb
b. an adjective
c. another adverb
d. complete sentence
Ex.: he is running quickly.
Ex.: He is extremely quick.
Ex.: He is running extremely quickly.
Ex.: He will probably be running quickly.


Adjectives do not turn into adverbs if modified by the following so-called linking verbs (verbindende Verben):

to be - sein
to become - werden
to look - aussehen
to seem - scheinen
to taste - schmecken
to feel - fühlen
to appear - erscheinen
to grow - werden
to turn - werden
to go - werden
to get - werden
to smell - riechen
to sound - klingen
This does not apply to:
to look at - auf etwas sehen, ansehen
to look for - suchen
to look after - sich kümmern um
to look forward to - sich freuen auf

Adverbs with and without the ending -ly, but with two different meanings:

Adjectives:
clear - klar
close - eng, nahe
deep - tief
direct - direkt
hard - hart, schwer
fair - fair
high - hoch
just - gerecht
late - spät
pretty - hübsch
right - richtig
most - am meisten
Adverb 1 (without -ly)
clear - von weg
close - nahe
deep - tief
direct - direkt
hard - hart, kräftig
fair - fair
high - hoch
just - gerade
late - spät
pretty - ziemlich
right - richtig
most, the most - am meisten
Adverb 2 (with -ly)
clear - klar, deutlich
closely - genau, vorsichtig
deeply - zutiefst
directly - sofort
hardly- kaum
fairly - gerecht
highly - höchst, sehr
justly - gerecht
lately - vor kurzem, kürzlich
prettily - hübsch, schön
rightly - zu Recht
mostly - meistens

Exceptions:
Adjective
friendly
cowardly
surprised
astonished
difficult
Adverb
in a friendly way
like a coward
in surprise
in great astonishment
with difficulty

Comparison (Steigerung) of adverbs:
Positive
fast
high
gladly
loudly
quickly
slowly
well
badly
a little
Comparative
faster
higher
more gladly
louder/more loudly
quicker/more quickly
slower/more slowly
better
worse
less
Superlative
fastest
highest
most gladly
loudest/most loudly
quickest/most quickly
slowest/most slowly
best
worst
least

Some German adjectives are rendered in English by verbs:
German
anscheinend
dauernd
früher, immer
gerne
lieber
sicher
wahrscheinlich
weiterhin
zufällig
leider
ob..wohl?
English
to seem
to keep on
used to
to like
to prefer
to be sure
to be likely
to continue
to happen
to be afraid/sorry
to wonder

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