1. Forms of the gerund:
e.g. ' to take' Active Passive
Present taking being taken
Past having taken having been taken
2. Definition of the gerund:

The gerund is partly a verb and partly a noun, as it is used in a sentence as a noun either a the subject or the object of that sentence. In German it is often referred to as 'substantiviertes Verb'. Although it is actually not done, you can place a definite article ('the') in front of the gerund and continue with 'of' after it. In the sentence : ' I like (the) playing (of) soccer ' the words in the brackets are not used, but it is a way of how to determine whether 'playing' is a gerund or not. And what is more, gerunds are always connected with prepositions, in contrast to participles which are usually connected with conjunctions (when, although etc.).

3. Application (Anwendung) of the gerund:

As I said before, the gerund can be applied in a sentence as a subject and as an object. It is also often used after verbs, adjectives, nouns if those are closely connected with prepositions. But it can also be seen right after prepositions only. One can categorize these applications by the following groups:

a. gerunds after verbs + prepositions like:
succeed in, complain of/about, worry about, talk of/about, insist on, rely on, look forward to, dream of, prevent from
b. gerunds after adjectives + prepostions like:
to be afraid of, to be interested in, to be proud of, to be tired of, to be exhausted with
c. gerunds after nouns +prepositions like:
chance of, possibility of , opportunity of, difficulty (in), for fear of
d. gerunds after certain verbs or phrases like:
like, hate, don't mind, enjoy, suggest, start, begin, continue, to be used to, to be accustomed to, how about, it is worthwhile, it is no use, it is no good, deny, love, prefer
e. gerunds after prepositions only:
after, before, by (dadurch daß), for (wegen), from (von), in/on (bei, beim), in spite of (trotz), instead of (statt), without (ohne)

Das erweiterte (extended) gerund ist eine Besonderheit, da es durch ein Objekt , Pronomen oder Possessivpronomen erweitert werden kann, wie z.B. im folgenden Beispiel:
' I hope you don't mind me / my opening the window. '

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