Forms of the participle:
' to read '
been) read ; 'having been' kann häufig wegbleiben
of the participle:
The participle is
partly a verb and partly an adjective, because it modifies
(bezieht sich auf) or relates to a noun.
(Anwendung) of the participle:
Basically one uses
the participle in its present form if two actions take place on the same
time level (Gleichzeitigkeit), and one uses the participle in the past
if two actions take place on different time levels (Vorzeitigkeit). In
particular you apply participle in the following cases:
|a. to shorten
subordinate clauses beginning with a conjunction (when, as, although,
e.g. As Kevin was
crossing the street, he met his friend. > Crossing the street, Kevin
met his friend.
|b. after verbs
of perception (Verben der sinnl. Wahrnehmung) like 'to watch', 'to
see', 'to notice' etc.
After these verbs
the participle is usually used in connection with an object as in:
e.g. Kevin saw his
friend crossing the street. (sog. A c I = Akkusativ cum Infinitiv)
|c. the participle
is used after 'with + object' to express the reason or condition under
which an action takes place:
e.g. With the number
of cars increasing all the time, traffic is becoming busier
or: With a lot
of money spent on roadworks, the government is running short
|d. the participle
after 'to have' = machen lassen, beauftragen mit Akk.Obj.:
e.g. Mr Miller is
having his car repaired.
or: They will have
their flights cancelled.