1. Forms of the participle:
e.g. ' to read ' Active Passive
Present reading being read
Past having read (having been) read ; 'having been' kann häufig wegbleiben
2. Definition of the participle:
The participle is partly a verb and partly an adjective, because it modifies (bezieht sich auf) or relates to a noun.
3. Application (Anwendung) of the participle:
Basically one uses the participle in its present form if two actions take place on the same time level (Gleichzeitigkeit), and one uses the participle in the past if two actions take place on different time levels (Vorzeitigkeit). In particular you apply participle in the following cases:
a. to shorten subordinate clauses beginning with a conjunction (when, as, although, if etc.)
e.g. As Kevin was crossing the street, he met his friend. > Crossing the street, Kevin met his friend.
b. after verbs of perception (Verben der sinnl. Wahrnehmung) like 'to watch', 'to see', 'to notice' etc.
After these verbs the participle is usually used in connection with an object as in:
e.g. Kevin saw his friend crossing the street. (sog. A c I = Akkusativ cum Infinitiv)
c. the participle is used after 'with + object' to express the reason or condition under which an action takes place:
e.g. With the number of cars increasing all the time, traffic is becoming busier and busier.
or: With a lot of money spent on roadworks, the government is running short of money.
d. the participle after 'to have' = machen lassen, beauftragen mit Akk.Obj.:
e.g. Mr Miller is having his car repaired.
or: They will have their flights cancelled.

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