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THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE: BASIC VOCABULARY: NEOLOGISMS

What is a 'claddagh'?
A claddagh (pronounced 'klada') is a 300-year-old Irish wedding ring. Its features are clasped hands symbolizing friendship, a heart (love) and a crown (loyalty). Legend has it that it originated in Claddagh on Galway Bay in 1690 when it was first made by an Irishman, who learned the trade of a goldsmith while under arrest somewhere in the Near East.
Today the ring has become Ireland's biggest export product since Guinness. It can be bought throughout Great Britain for c. 50 pounds.
....'honesty boxes' ?
It is a box at public locations like airports or stations where people are asked to deposit their money in exchange of a newspaper which is placed (unsupervised) on a rack next to the box. The experiment was started last month (March) by W.H.Smith, the newsagent, at Heathrow Airport and has been so successful since that Smith has extended it to 30 locations throughout England. Similar honesty boxes are quite common in the USA.
...'gerrymandering' ?
...is the manipulation of constituency boundaries in order to give unfair advantages to one party in an election. This used to be common practice in Northern Ireland where the Ulster Unionists tried to gain advantages in predominantly Catholic areas.
...'supergrass' ?
... a criminal who informs the police about the activities of a large number of other criminals.This occurred in Northern Ireland with IRA-informants.
...'safe houses' ?
... hiding places (usu. private) of IRA- or other paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland.
...'home rule / direct rule' ?
...home rule: if Northern Ireland had its own government
...direct rule: Northern Ireland is governed by the Houses of Parliament in London (current situation)
...a 'private' public school ?
...this is only possible in England, because public schools like Eton or Harrow are in fact private schools, which means independent schools (independent from state control). As early as the 15th century lay townspeople formed guilds to provide schools for the poor and called them 'public' schools.One of the many patrons was Henry VI, who founded Eton in 1440 as a public school so that tutors could be hired to teach children in groups rather than the costly individual tutor privately at home.
On the advent of state-funded secondary schools after 1902, the ancient public schools retained their original title since parents were still required to pay a fee.
Neologisms
New words do not only come up in computer terminology, but also in many other walks of life: nerd: in the 80s it was an American term of abuse for an ineffectual individual, but it is today applied to people with an obsessive interest in computing. spamming: flooding the Internet with junk e-mails
information fatigue syndrome: signs of being overfed with information. It is a feeling as if one is trying to climb a ladder under the Niagara Falls. oldies / wrinklies / super-wrinklies: in an ageing population the number of older people is rising. superpredators: a term coined by criminologists to describe children who commit a huge number of crimes.
mini: is now a megafavourite not only used to describe short skirts or small cars, but also used in words like mini-boom, mini-crash, mini-conglomerate, mini-recovery or mini-recession (words from the financial pages). Diminutives like -ling, -ette, or -let are outmoded by -mini. chib = club or knife
hood= neighbourhood
dis = disrespect
These words originate from a new dialect which is spoken by British youngsters involved in street violence.
feel froggy = want to fight
yo = hi
Two words from a new dialect, called Ebonics, used by balck people in America.
One of the best and least expensive German-English / English-German dictionaries is:

amazon.de Collins German-English/English-German Dictionary / Pons Collins Großwörterbuch für Experten und Universität,
by
Peter Terrell
amazon.de


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