By Saadat Hasan Manto
Beginning with isolated incidents of stabbing, it had now developed into full-scale communal violence,
with no holds barred1. Even homemade bombs were being used.
The general view in Amritsar2 was that the riots could not last long. They were seen as no more than a
manifestation of temporarily inflamed political passions which were bound to cool down before long.
After all, these were not the first communal riots the city had known. There had been so many of them
in the past. They never lasted long. The pattern was familiar. Two weeks or so of unrest and then
business as usual. On the basis of experience, therefore, the people were quite justified in believing
that the current troubles would also run their course in a few days. But this did not happen. They not
only continued, but grew in intensity.
Muslims3 living in Hindu localities began to leave for safer places, and Hindus in Muslim majority areas
followed suit. However, everyone saw these adjustments as strictly temporary. The atmosphere would soon
be clear of this communal madness, they told themselves.
Retired judge Mian Adbul Hai was absolutely confident that things would return to normal soon, which
was why he wasn't worried. He had two children, a boy of eleven and a girl of seventeen. In addition,
there was an old servant who was now pushing seventy. It was a small family. When the troubles started
Mian sahib (=sir, master), being an extra cautious man, stocked up on food just in case. So on one
count, at least, there were no worries.
His daughter Sughra was less sure of things. They lived in a three-storey house with a view over almost
the entire city. Sughra could not help noticing that whenever she went on the roof, there were fires
raging everywhere. In the beginning, she could hear fire engines rushing past, their bells ringing,
hut this had now stopped. There were too many fires in too many places.
The nights had become particularly frightening. The sky was always lit by conflagrations4 like giants
spitting out flames. Then there were the slogans which rent the air with terrifying frequency - Allaho
Akbar, Har Har Mahadev.
Sughra never expressed her fears to her father, because he had declared confidently that there was no
cause for anxiety. Everything was to he fine. Since he was generally always right, she had initially
However, when the power and water supplies were suddenly cut off, she expressed her unease to her
father and suggested apologetically that, for a few days at least, they should move to Sharifpura,
a Muslim locality, to where many of the old residents had already moved. Mian sahib was adamant5:
'You're imagining things. Everything is going to be normal very soon.'
He was wrong. Things went from bad to worse. Before long there was not a single Muslim family to be
found in Mian Abdul Hai's locality. Then one day Mian sahib suffered a stroke and was laid up. His son
Basharat, who used to spend most of his time playing self-devised games, now stayed glued to his
All the shops in the area had been permanently boarded up. Dr Ghulam Hussain's dispensary6 had been shut
for weeks and Sughra had noticed from the roof-top one day that the adjoining clinic of Dr Goranditta
Mall was also closed. Mian sahib's condition was getting worse day by day. Sughra was almost at the
end of her wits. One day she took Basharat aside and said to him, 'You've got to do something. I know
it's not safe to go out, but we must get some help. Our father is very ill.'
The boy went, but came back almost immediately. His face was pale with fear. He had seen a blood-drenched
body lying in the street and a group of wild-looking men looting shops. Sughra took the terrified boy
in her arms and said a silent prayer, thanking God for his safe return. However, she could not bear her
father's suffering. His left side was now completely lifeless. His speech had been impaired7 and he mostly
communicated through gestures, all designed to reassure Sughra that soon all would be well.
It was the month of Ramadan and only two days to Id (=a Muslim festival). Mian sahib was quite confident
that the troubles would be over by then. He was again wrong. A canopy of smoke hung over the city, with
fires burning everywhere. At night the silence was shattered by deafening explosions. Sughra and Basharat
hadn't slept for days.
Sughra, in any case, couldn't because of her father's deteriorating8 condition. Helplessly, she would
look at him, then at her young frightened brother and the seventy-year-old servant Akbar, who was
useless for all practical purposes. He mostly kept to his bed, coughing and fighting for breath. One
day Sughra told him angrily, 'What good are you? Do you realise how ill Mian sahib is? Perhaps you are
too lazy to want to help, pretending that you are suffering from acute asthma. There was a time when
servants used to sacrifice their lives for their masters.'
Sughra felt very bad afterwards. She had been unnecessarily harsh on the old man. In the evening when she
took his food to him in his small room, he was not there. Basharat looked for him all over the house hut
he was nowhere to he found. The front door was unlatched9. He was gone, perhaps to get some help for Mian
sahib. Sughra prayed for his return, but two days passed and he hadn't come back.
It was evening and the festival of ld was now only a day away. She remembered the excitement which used
to grip the family on this occasion. She remembered standing on the roof-top, peering into the sky,
looking for the Id moon and praying for the clouds to clear. But how different everything was today.
The sky was covered in smoke and on distant roofs one could see people looking upwards. Were they
trying to catch sight of the new moon or were they watching the fires, she wondered?
She looked up and saw the thin sliver of the moon peeping through a small patch in the sky. She raised
her hands in prayer, begging God to make her father well. Basharat, however, was upset that there would
be no Id this year.
The night hadn't yet fallen. Sughra had moved her father's bed out of the room onto the veranda. She was
sprinkling water on the floor to make it cool. Mian sahil was lying there quietly looking with vacant
eyes at the sky where she had seen the moon. Sughra came and sat next to him. He motioned her to get
closer. Then he raised his right arm slowly and put it on her head. Tears began to run from Sughra's
eyes. Even Mian sahil looked moved. Then with great difficulty he said to her, 'God is merciful. All
will be well.'
Suddenly there was a knock on the door. Sughra's heart began to beat violently. She looked at Basharat,
whose face had turned white like a sheet of paper. There was another knock. Mian sahib gestured to Sughra
to answer it. lt must be old Akbar who had come back, she thought. She said to Basharat, 'Answer the door.
I'm sure it's Akbar.' Her father shook his head, as if to signal disagreement.
'Then who can it be?' Sughra asked him.
Mian Abdul Hai tried to speak, but before he could do so, Basharat came running in. He was breathless.
Taking Sughra aside, he whispered, 'It's a Sikh.'
Sughra screamed, 'A Sikh! What does he want?'
'He wants me to open the door.'
Sughra took Basharat in her arms and went and sat on her father's bed, looking at him desolately.
On Mian Abdul Hai's thin, lifeless lips, a faint smile appeared. 'Go and open the door. It is Gurmukh
'No, it's someone else,' Basharat said.
Mian sahib turned to Sughra. 'Open the door. It's him.'
Sughra rose. She knew Gurmukh Singh. Her father had once done him a favour. He had been involved in a
false legal suit and Mian sahib had acquitted10 him. That was a long time ago, but every year on the
occasion of Id he would come all the wav from his village with a bag of home-made noodles. Mian sahib
had told him several times, 'Sardar sahib, you really are too kind. You shouldn't inconvenience yourself
every year.' But Gurmukh Singh would always reply, 'Mian sahib, God has given you everything. This is
only a small gift which I bring every year in humble acknowledgement of the kindness you did me once.
Even a hundred generations of mine would not be able to repay your favour. May God keep you happy.'
Sughra was reassured. Why hadn't she thought of it in the first place? But why had Basharat said it was
someone else? After all, he knew Gurmukh Singh's face from his annual visit.
Sughra went to the front door. There was another knock. Her heart missed a beat. 'Who is it?' she asked
in a faint voice.
Basharat whispered to her to look through a small hole in the door.
It wasn't Gurmukh Singh, who was a very old man. This was a young fellow. He knocked again. He was
holding a bag in his hand, of the same kind Gurmukh Singh used to bring.
'Who are you?' she asked, a little more confident now.
'I am Sardar Gurmukh Singh's son Santokh.'
Sughra's fear had suddenly gone. 'What brings you here today?' she asked politely.
'Where is judge sahib?' he asked.
'He is not well,' Sughra answered.
'Oh, I'm sorry,' Santokh Singh said. Then he shifted his bag from one hand to the other. 'These are
home-made noodles.' Then after a pause, 'Sardarji (=a respectful way to address a Sikh man) is dead.'
'Yes, a month ago, but one of the last things he said to me was, 'For the last ten years, on the
occasion of Id, I have always taken my small gift to judge sahib. After I am gone, it will become
your duty.' I gave him my word that I would not fail him. I am here today to honour the promise made
to my father on his death-bed.' Sughra was so moved that tears came to her eyes. She opened the door
a little. The young man pushed the bag towards her. 'May God rest his soul,' she said.
'Is judge sahib not well?' he asked.
'He had a stroke.'
'Had my father been alive, it would have grieved him deeply. He never forgot judge sahib's kindness
until his last breath. He used to say, 'He is not a man, but a god.' May God keep him under his care.
Please convey my respects to him.'
He left before Sughra could make up her mind whether or not to ask him to get a doctor.
As Santokh Singh turned the corner, four men, their faces covered with their turbans, moved towards
him. Two of them held burning oil torches, the others carried cans of kerosene oil and explosives.
One of them asked Santokh, 'Sardar Ji, have you completed your assignment?'
The young man nodded.
'Should we then proceed with ours?' he asked.
'If you like,' he replied and walked away.
Source: Diverse Cultures - Short stories by Jean Moore and John Catron, Hodder and Stougjhton, pp. 92-96
1. with no holds barred - ohne Unterlass
2. Amritsar - town in India
3. Muslims - believing in Islam; Hindus believing in Hinduism; Sikhs are Punjabi people.
4. conflagrations - Groß-, Flächenbrände
5. adamant - unnachgiebig
6. dispensary - Apotheke
7. impaired - beeinträchtigt, verschlimmert
8. deteriorate - verschlimmern
9. unlatched - unverriegelt
10. acquit - freisprechen
1. Summarize the story from the moment when Santokh knocks on the front door.
2. Why has violence erupted in the town of Amritsar?
3. This story is about trust and betrayal. Comment on this statement.
4. How does the author create suspense in his story?
5. The denouement is typical of a short story. Why?
6. Describe the relationship between the father and his two children. Do you think it
is similar to the relationships between parents and children in our society?
7. Analyse the figurative language of his story by picking two or three examples.