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UK: NORTHERN IRELAND: A SURVEY OF IRISH HISTORY

1155 The English Pope Adrian IV granted sovereignty over Ireland to King Henry II of England
1171 Henry II took troops to Ireland creating earldoms for his officers; thus the settlement of English and Scottish people in Ireland began.
1607 Under James I English Protestant settlers began the so-called plantation of Ulster; they became the land-owning and ruling class in Ulster, although being in the minority.
1690 William of Orange (later William III) defeated James II at the Battle of the Boyne; thus Protestant supremacy in Ireland was confirmed.
1798 The United Irishmen, a revolutionary society, fought the English army, but failed.
1800 Outcome: the ACT OF UNION (Ireland became part of the UK)
1912 A Home Rule bill was about to come into effect, but World War I prevented this. The aim was to bring an end to political discontent.
1916 Consequence of above delay: the Easter Risings. The IRA declared Ireland a republic, but they were crushed by British troops.
1921 After years of warfare between the IRA and British troops Ireland became the Irish Free State with 26, mainly Catholic counties. Six of the nine Ulster counties became a British province, mainly inhabited by Protestants.
1949 The Irish Free State declared itself the Republic of Ireland.
1960s Movement for civil rights for Catholics was launched (bad housing and poor social conditions). Tensions particularly big in Belfast and Londonderry.
1969 To quell the unrest the British government began to deploy British troops in Northern Ireland. Thus the era of the Troubles began, which was to last until the end of the 90s.
1972 The British Prime Minister Edward Heath suspended the Northern Ireland Government and brought in Direct British Rule.

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